Principles of Instrumental Analysis – Douglas A. Skoog, F. James Holler, Stanley R. Crouch – 7th Edition


PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS, 7th Edition, places an emphasis on operating principles of each type of instrument, its optimal area of application, its sensitivity, its precision, and its limitations. You’ll also learn about elementary analog and digital electronics, computers, and the treatment of analytical data.

When instrument users are familiar with the fundamental principles underlying modern analytical instrumentation, they can make appropriate choices and efficient use of these measurement tools. For any given analytical problem, a seemingly bewildering number of alternative methods exist for obtaining the desired information. By understanding the advantages and limitations of the various tools, suitable choices can be made, and the user can be attuned to limitations in sensitivity, precision, and accuracy.

In addition, users of instrumental methods should be aware of the various techniques for calibrating and standardizing instruments, and validating the measurements made. It is therefore our objective to give readers a thorough introduction to the principles of instrumental analysis, including spectroscopic, electrochemical, chromatographic, radiochemical, thermal, and surface analytical methods. By carefully studying this text, readers will discover the types of instruments that are available and their strengths and limitations.

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  • Preface

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    1A Classification of Analytical Methods
    1B Types of Instrumental Methods
    1C Instruments for Analysis
    1D Calibration of Instrumental Methods
    1E Selecting an Analytical Method
    Questions and Problems
    Section 1: Measurement Basics

    Chapter 2: Electrical Components and Circuits
    2A Direct-Current Circuits and Measurements
    2B Alternating Current Circuits
    2C Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices
    2D Power Supplies and Regulators
    2E Readout Devices
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 3: Operational Amplifiers in Chemical Instrumentation
    3A Properties of Operational Amplifiers
    3B Operational Amplifier Circuits
    3C Amplification and Measurement of Transducer Signals
    3D Application of Operational Amplifiers to Voltage and Current Control
    3E Application of Operational Amplifiers to Mathematical Operations
    3F Applications of Operational Amplifiers to Comparison
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 4: Digital Electronics and Computers
    4A Analog and Digital Signals
    4B Counting and Arithmetic with Binary Numbers
    4C Basic Digital Circuits
    4D Computers and Computerized Instruments
    4E Components of a Computer
    4F Computer Software
    4G Applications of Computers
    4H Computer Networks
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 5: Signals and Noise
    5A The Signal-to-Noise Ratio
    5B Sources of Noise in Instrumental Analyses
    5C Signal-to-Noise Enhancement
    Questions and Problems
    Instrumental Analysis in Action - The Electronic Analytical Laboratory
    Section 2: Atomic Spectroscopy

    Chapter 6: An Introduction to Spectrometric Methods
    6A General Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation
    6B Wave Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation
    6C Quantum-Mechanical Properties of Radiation
    6D Quantitative Aspects of Spectrochemical Measurements
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 7: Components of Optical Instruments
    7A General Designs of Optical Instruments
    7B Sources of Radiation
    7C Wavelength Selectors
    7D Sample Containers
    7E Radiation Transducers
    7F Signal Processors and Readouts
    7G Fiber Optics
    7H Types of Optical Instruments
    7I Principles of Fourier Transform Optical Measurements
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 8: An Introduction to Optical Atomic Spectrometry
    8A Optical Atomic Spectra
    8B Atomization Methods
    8C Sample-Introduction Methods
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 9: Atomic Absorption and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
    9A Sample Atomization Techniques
    9B Atomic Absorption Instrumentation
    9C Interferences in Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    9D Atomic Absorption Analytical Techniques
    9E Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 10: Atomic Emission Spectrometry
    10A Emission Spectroscopy Based on Plasma Sources
    10B Emission Spectroscopy Based on Arc and Spark Sources
    10C Other Sources for Optical Emission Spectroscopy
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 11: Atomic Mass Spectrometry
    11A Some General Features of Atomic Mass Spectrometry
    11B Mass Spectrometers
    11C Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
    11D Spark Source Mass Spectrometry
    11E Glow-Discharge Mass Spectrometry
    11F Other Mass Spectrometric Methods
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 12: Atomic X-ray Spectrometry
    12A Fundamental Principles
    12B Instrument Components
    12C X-ray Fluorescence Methods
    12D X-ray Absorption Methods
    12E The Electron Microprobe
    Questions and Problems
    Instrumental Analysis in Action - Monitoring Mercury
    Section 3: Molecular Spectroscopy

    Chapter 13: An Introduction to Ultraviolet-Visible Molecular Absorption Spectrometry
    13A Measurement of Transmittance and Absorbance
    13B Beer's Law
    13C The Effects of Instrumental Noise on Spectrophotometric Analyses
    13D Instrumentation
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 14: Applications of Ultraviolet-Visible Molecular Absorption Spectrometry
    14A The Magnitude of Molar Absorptivities
    14B Absorbing Species
    14C Qualitative Applications of Ultraviolet Visible Absorption Spectroscopy
    14D Quantitative Analysis by Absorption Measurements
    14E Photometric and Spectrophotometric Titrations
    14F Spectrophotometric Kinetic Methods
    14G Spectrophotometric Studies of Complex Ions
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 15: Molecular Luminescence Spectrometry
    15A Theory of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
    15B Fluorescence and Phosphorescene Instrumentation
    15C Applications of Photoluminescence Methods
    15D Chemiluminescence
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 16: An Introduction to Infrared Spectrometry
    16A Theory of IR Absorption Spectrometry
    16B IR Instrumentation
    16C IR Sources and Transducers
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 17: Applications of Infrared Spectrometry
    17A Mid-IR Absorption Spectrometry
    17B Mid-IR Reflection Spectrometry
    17C Photoacoustic IR Spectroscopy
    17D Near-IR Spectroscopy
    17E Far-IR Spectroscopy
    17F IR Emission Spectroscopy
    17G IR Microscopy and Imaging
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 18: Raman Spectroscopy
    18A Theory of Raman Spectroscopy
    18B Instrumentation
    18C Applications of Raman Spectroscopy
    18D Other Types of Raman Spectroscopy
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 19: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    19A Theory of NMR
    19B Environmental Effects on NMR Spectra
    19C NMR Spectrometers
    19D Applications of Proton NMR
    19E Carbon-13 NMR
    19F Application of NMR to Other Nuclei
    19G Multiple Pulse and Multidimensional NMR
    19H Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 20: Molecular Mass Spectrometry
    20A Molecular Mass Spectra
    20B Ion Sources
    20C Mass Spectrometers
    20D Applications of Molecular Mass Spectrometry
    20E Quantitative Applications of Mass Spectrometry
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 21: Surface Characterization by Spectroscopy and Microscopy
    21A Introduction to the Study of Surfaces
    21B Spectroscopic Surface Methods
    21C Electron Spectroscopy
    21D Ion Spectroscopic Techniques
    21E Surface Photon Spectroscopic Methods
    21F Electron-Stimulated Microanalysis Methods
    21G Scanning Probe Microscopes
    Questions and Problems
    Instrumental Analysis in Action - Assessing the Authenticity of the Vinland Map: Surface Analysis in
    Section 4: Electroanalytical Chemistry

    Chapter 22: An Introduction to Electroanalytical Chemistry
    22A Electrochemical Cells
    22B Potentials in Electroanalytical Cells
    22C Electrode Potentials
    22D Calculation of Cell Potentials from Electrode Potentials
    22E Currents in Electrochemical Cells
    22F Types of Electroanalytical Methods
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 23: Potentiometry
    23A General Principles
    23B Reference Electrodes
    23C Metallic Indicator Electrodes
    23D Membrane Indicator Electrodes
    23E Ion-Selective Field-Effect Transistors
    23F Molecular-Selective Electrode Systems
    23G Instruments for Measuring Cell Potentials
    23H Direct Potentiometric Measurements
    23I Potentiometric Titrations
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 24: Coulometry
    24A Current-Voltage Relationships during an Electrolysis
    24B An Introduction to Coulometric Methods of Analysis
    24C Controlled-Potential Coulometry
    24D Coulometric Titrations
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 25: Voltammetry
    25A Excitation Signals in Voltammetry
    25B Voltammetric Instrumentation
    25C Hydrodynamic Voltammetry
    25D Cyclic Voltammetry
    25E Pulse Voltammetry
    25F High-Frequency and High-Speed Voltammetry
    25G Applications of Voltammetry
    25H Stripping Methods
    25I Voltammetry with Microelectrodes
    Questions and Problems
    Instrumental Analysis in Action - Measuring the Parts to Understand the Whole: The Microphysiometer
    Section 5: Separation Methods

    Chapter 26: An Introduction to Chromatographic Separations
    26A General Description of Chromatography
    26B Migration Rates of Solutes
    26C Band Broadening and Column Efficiency
    26D Optimization of Column Performance
    26E Summary of Chromatographic Relationships
    26F Applications of Chromatography
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 27: Gas Chromatography
    27A Principles of GLC
    27B Instruments for GLC
    27C Gas Chromatographic Columns and Stationary Phases
    27D Applications of GC
    27E Advances in GC
    27F Gas-Solid Chromatography
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 28: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
    28A Scope of HPLC
    28B Column Efficiency in LC
    28C Instrumentation
    28D Partition Chromatography
    28E Adsorption Chromatography
    28F Ion Chromatography
    28G Size-Exclusion Chromatography
    28H Affinity Chromatography
    28I Thin-Layer Chromatography
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 29: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction
    29A Properties of Supercritical Fluids
    29B Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    29C Supercritical Fluid Extraction
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 30: Capillary Electrophoresis, Electrochromatography, and Field-Flow Fractionation
    30A An Overview of Electrophoresis
    30B Capillary Electrophoresis
    30C Applications of CE
    30D Packed Column Electrochromatography
    30E Field-Flow Fractionation
    Questions and Problems
    Instrumental Analysis in Action - The Bisphenol A Controversy
    Section 6: Miscellaneous Methods

    Chapter 31: Thermal Methods
    31A Thermogravimetric Analysis
    31B Differential Thermal Analysis
    31C Differential Scanning Calorimetry
    31D Microthermal Analysis
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 32: Radiochemical Methods
    32A Radioactive Nuclides
    32B Instrumentation
    32C Neutron Activation Methods
    32D Isotope Dilution Methods
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 33: Automated Methods of Analysis
    33A Overview
    33B Flow Injection Analysis
    33C Microfluidics
    33D Discrete Automatic Systems
    Questions and Problems

    Chapter 34: Particle Size Determination
    34A Introduction to Particle Size Analysis
    34B Low-Angle Laser Light Scattering
    34C Dynamic Light Scattering
    34D Photosedimentation
    Questions and Problems
    Instrumental Analysis in Action - The John F. Kennedy Assassinaton

    Appendix 1: Evaluation of Analytical Data
    Appendix 2: Activity Coefficients
    Appendix 3: Some Standard and Formal Electrode Potentials
    Appendix 4: Compounds Recommended for the Preparation of Standard Solutions of Some Common Elements
    Answers to Selected Problems
  • Citation

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