College Physics – Paul Peter Urone,‎ Roger Hinrichs – 1st Edition


This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. College Physics includes learning objectives, concept questions, links to labs and simulations, and ample practice opportunities to solve traditional physics application problems.

College Physics meets standard scope and sequence requirements for a two-semester introductory algebra-based physics course. It requires knowledge of algebra and some trigonometry, but not calculus. College Physics includes learning objectives, concept questions, links to labs and simulations, and ample practice opportunities for traditional physics application problems.

This book is written for you. It is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous physicists and influenced by a strong recollection of their own struggles as students. After reading this book, we hope you see that physics is visible everywhere. Applications range from driving a car to launching a rocket, from a skater whirling on ice to a neutron star spinning in space, and from taking your temperature to taking a chest X-ray.

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  • Preface

    1. Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    1.1. Physics: An Introduction
    1.2. Physical Quantities and Units
    1.3. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    1.4. Approximation
    1.5. Glossary
    1.6. Section Summary
    1.7. Conceptual Questions
    1.8. Problems & Exercises

    2. Kinematics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    2.1. Displacement
    2.2. Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    2.3. Time, Velocity, and Speed
    2.4. Acceleration
    2.5. Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    2.6. Problem-Solving Basics for One Dimensional Kinematics
    2.7. Falling Objects
    2.8. Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion
    2.9. Glossary
    2.10. Section Summary
    2.11. Conceptual Questions
    2.12. Problems & Exercises
    2.13. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    3. Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    3.1. Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3.2. Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3.3. Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    3.4. Projectile Motion
    3.5. Addition of Velocities
    3.6. Glossary
    3.7. Section Summary
    3.8. Conceptual Questions
    3.9. Problems & Exercises
    3.10. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    4. Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    Connection for AP® Courses
    4.1. Development of Force Concept
    4.2. Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4.3. Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    4.4. Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    4.5. Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force
    4.6. Problem-Solving Strategies
    4.7. Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion
    4.8. Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    4.9. Glossary
    4.10. Section Summary
    4.11. Conceptual Questions
    4.12. Problems & Exercises
    4.13. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    5. Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    Connection for AP® Courses
    5.1. Friction
    5.2. Drag Forces
    5.3. Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5.4. Glossary
    5.5. Section Summary
    5.6. Conceptual Questions
    5.7. Problems & Exercises
    5.8. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    6. Gravitation and Uniform Circular Motion
    Connection for AP® Courses
    6.1. Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    6.2. Centripetal Acceleration
    6.3. Centripetal Force
    6.4. Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6.5. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
    6.6. Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    6.7. Glossary
    6.8. Section Summary
    6.9. Conceptual Questions
    6.10. Problems & Exercises
    6.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    7. Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    Connection for AP® Courses
    7.1. Work: The Scientific Definition
    7.2. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    7.3. Gravitational Potential Energy
    7.4. Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    7.5. Nonconservative Forces
    7.6. Conservation of Energy
    7.7. Power
    7.8. Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    7.9. World Energy Use
    7.10. Glossary
    7.11. Section Summary
    7.12. Conceptual Questions
    7.13. Problems & Exercises
    7.14. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    8. Linear Momentum and Collisions
    Connection for AP® courses
    8.1. Linear Momentum and Force
    8.2. Impulse
    8.3. Conservation of Momentum
    8.4. Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    8.5. Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    8.6. Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8.7. Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    8.8. Glossary
    8.9. Section Summary
    8.10. Conceptual Questions
    8.11. Problems & Exercises
    8.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    9. Statics and Torque
    Connection for AP® Courses
    9.1. The First Condition for Equilibrium
    9.2. The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    9.3. Stability
    9.4. Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    9.5. Simple Machines
    9.6. Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    9.7. Glossary
    9.8. Section Summary
    9.9. Conceptual Questions
    9.10. Problems & Exercises
    9.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    10. Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    Connection for AP® Courses
    10.1. Angular Acceleration
    10.2. Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    10.3. Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    10.4. Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    10.5. Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    10.6. Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    10.7. Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    10.8. Glossary
    10.9. Section Summary
    10.10. Conceptual Questions
    10.11. Problems & Exercises
    10.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    11. Fluid Statics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    11.1. What Is a Fluid?
    11.2. Density
    11.3. Pressure
    11.4. Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    11.5. Pascal’s Principle
    11.6. Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    11.7. Archimedes’ Principle
    11.8. Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    11.9. Pressures in the Body
    11.10. Glossary
    11.11. Section Summary
    11.12. Conceptual Questions
    11.13. Problems & Exercises
    11.14. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    12. Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    Connection for AP® Courses
    12.1. Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    12.2. Bernoulli’s Equation
    12.3. The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    12.4. Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    12.5. The Onset of Turbulence
    12.6. Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    12.7. Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    12.8. Glossary
    12.9. Section Summary
    12.10. Conceptual Questions
    12.11. Problems & Exercises
    12.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    13. Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    Connection for AP® Courses
    13.1. Temperature
    13.2. Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    13.3. The Ideal Gas Law
    13.4. Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    13.5. Phase Changes
    13.6. Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    13.7. Glossary
    13.8. Section Summary
    13.9. Conceptual Questions
    13.10. Problems & Exercises
    13.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    14. Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    Connection for AP® Courses
    14.1. Heat
    14.2. Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    14.3. Phase Change and Latent Heat
    14.4. Heat Transfer Methods
    14.5. Conduction
    14.6. Convection
    14.7. Radiation
    14.8. Glossary
    14.9. Section Summary
    14.10. Conceptual Questions
    14.11. Problems & Exercises
    14.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    15. Thermodynamics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    15.1. The First Law of Thermodynamics
    15.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    15.3. Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    15.4. Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    15.5. Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    15.6. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    15.7. Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    15.8. Glossary
    15.9. Section Summary
    15.10. Conceptual Questions
    15.11. Problems & Exercises
    15.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    16. Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    Connection for AP® Courses
    16.1. Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    16.2. Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    16.3. Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    16.4. The Simple Pendulum
    16.5. Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    16.6. Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    16.7. Damped Harmonic Motion
    16.8. Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    16.9. Waves
    16.10. Superposition and Interference
    16.11. Energy in Waves: Intensity
    16.12. Glossary
    16.13. Section Summary
    16.14. Conceptual Questions
    16.15. Problems & Exercises
    16.16. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    17. Physics of Hearing
    Connection for AP® Courses
    17.1. Sound
    17.2. Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    17.3. Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    17.4. Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    17.5. Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    17.6. Hearing
    17.7. Ultrasound
    17.8. Glossary
    17.9. Section Summary
    17.10. Conceptual Questions
    17.11. Problems & Exercises
    17.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    18. Electric Charge and Electric Field
    Connection for AP® Courses
    18.1. Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    18.2. Conductors and Insulators
    18.3. Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    18.4. Coulomb’s Law
    18.5. Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    18.6. Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    18.7. Electric Forces in Biology
    18.8. Applications of Electrostatics
    18.9. Glossary
    18.10. Section Summary
    18.11. Conceptual Questions
    18.12. Problems & Exercises
    18.13. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    19. Electric Potential and Electric Field
    Connection for AP® Courses
    19.1. Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    19.2. Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    19.3. Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    19.4. Equipotential Lines
    19.5. Capacitors and Dielectrics
    19.6. Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    19.7. Energy Stored in Capacitors
    19.8. Glossary
    19.9. Section Summary
    19.10. Conceptual Questions
    19.11. Problems & Exercises
    19.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    20. Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    Connection for AP® Courses
    20.1. Current
    20.2. Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    20.3. Resistance and Resistivity
    20.4. Electric Power and Energy
    20.5. Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    20.6. Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    20.7. Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    20.8. Glossary
    20.9. Section Summary
    20.10. Conceptual Questions
    20.11. Problems & Exercises
    20.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    21. Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
    Connection for AP® Courses
    21.1. Resistors in Series and Parallel
    21.2. Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    21.3. Kirchhoff’s Rules
    21.4. DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    21.5. Null Measurements
    21.6. DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    21.7. Glossary
    21.8. Section Summary
    21.9. Conceptual Questions
    21.10. Problems & Exercises
    21.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    22. Magnetism
    Connection for AP® Courses
    22.1. Magnets
    22.2. Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    22.3. Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    22.4. Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    22.5. Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    22.6. The Hall Effect
    22.7. Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    22.8. Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    22.9. Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    22.10. Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    22.11. More Applications of Magnetism
    22.12. Glossary
    22.13. Section Summary
    22.14. Conceptual Questions
    22.15. Problems & Exercises
    22.16. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    23. Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    Connection for AP® Courses
    23.1. Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    23.2. Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    23.3. Motional Emf
    23.4. Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    23.5. Electric Generators
    23.6. Back Emf
    23.7. Transformers
    23.8. Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    23.9. Inductance
    23.10. RL Circuits
    23.11. Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    23.12. RLC Series AC Circuits
    23.13. Glossary
    23.14. Section Summary
    23.15. Conceptual Questions
    23.16. Problems & Exercises
    23.17. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    24. Electromagnetic Waves
    Connection for AP® Courses
    24.1. Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    24.2. Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    24.3. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    24.4. Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    24.5. Glossary
    24.6. Section Summary
    24.7. Conceptual Questions
    24.8. Problems & Exercises
    24.9. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    25. Geometric Optics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    25.1. The Ray Aspect of Light
    25.2. The Law of Reflection
    25.3. The Law of Refraction
    25.4. Total Internal Reflection
    25.5. Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    25.6. Image Formation by Lenses
    25.7. Image Formation by Mirrors
    25.8. Glossary
    25.9. Section Summary
    25.10. Conceptual Questions
    25.11. Problems & Exercises
    25.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    26. Vision and Optical Instruments
    Connection for AP® Courses
    26.1. Physics of the Eye
    26.2. Vision Correction
    26.3. Color and Color Vision
    26.4. Microscopes
    26.5. Telescopes
    26.6. Aberrations
    26.7. Glossary
    26.8. Section Summary
    26.9. Conceptual Questions
    26.10. Problems & Exercises
    26.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    27. Wave Optics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    27.1. The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    27.2. Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    27.3. Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    27.4. Multiple Slit Diffraction
    27.5. Single Slit Diffraction
    27.6. Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    27.7. Thin Film Interference
    27.8. Polarization
    27.9. *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    27.10. Glossary
    27.11. Section Summary
    27.12. Conceptual Questions
    27.13. Problems & Exercises
    27.14. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    28. Special Relativity
    Connection for AP® Courses
    28.1. Einstein’s Postulates
    28.2. Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    28.3. Length Contraction
    28.4. Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    28.5. Relativistic Momentum
    28.6. Relativistic Energy
    28.7. Glossary
    28.8. Section Summary
    28.9. Conceptual Questions
    28.10. Problems & Exercises
    28.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    29. Introduction to Quantum Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    29.1. Quantization of Energy
    29.2. The Photoelectric Effect
    29.3. Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    29.4. Photon Momentum
    29.5. The Particle-Wave Duality
    29.6. The Wave Nature of Matter
    29.7. Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    29.8. The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    29.9. Glossary
    29.10. Section Summary
    29.11. Conceptual Questions
    29.12. Problems & Exercises
    29.13. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    30. Atomic Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    30.1. Discovery of the Atom
    30.2. Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    30.3. Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    30.4. X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    30.5. Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    30.6. The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    30.7. Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    30.8. Quantum Numbers and Rules
    30.9. The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    30.10. Glossary
    30.11. Section Summary
    30.12. Conceptual Questions
    30.13. Problems & Exercises
    30.14. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    31. Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    31.1. Nuclear Radioactivity
    31.2. Radiation Detection and Detectors
    31.3. Substructure of the Nucleus
    31.4. Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    31.5. Half-Life and Activity
    31.6. Binding Energy
    31.7. Tunneling
    31.8. Glossary
    31.9. Section Summary
    31.10. Conceptual Questions
    31.11. Problems & Exercises
    31.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    32. Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    32.1. Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    32.2. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    32.3. Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    32.4. Food Irradiation
    32.5. Fusion
    32.6. Fission
    32.7. Nuclear Weapons
    32.8. Glossary
    32.9. Section Summary
    32.10. Conceptual Questions
    32.11. Problems & Exercises
    32.12. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    33. Particle Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    33.1. The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    33.2. The Four Basic Forces
    33.3. Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    33.4. Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    33.5. Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    33.6. GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    33.7. Glossary
    33.8. Section Summary
    33.9. Conceptual Questions
    33.10. Problems & Exercises
    33.11. Test Prep for AP® Courses

    34. Frontiers of Physics
    Connection for AP® Courses
    34.1. Cosmology and Particle Physics
    34.2. General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    34.3. Superstrings
    34.4. Dark Matter and Closure
    34.5. Complexity and Chaos
    34.6. High-Temperature Superconductors
    34.7. Some Questions We Know to Ask
    34.8. Glossary
    34.9. Section Summary
    34.10. Conceptual Questions
    34.11. Problems & Exercises

    Atomic Masses
    Selected Radioactive Isotopes
    Useful Information
    Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
    Answer Key
  • Citation

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