Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry – David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox – 5th Edition


In the Fifth Edition, authors Dave Nelson and Mike Cox combine the best of the laboratory and best of the classroom, introducing exciting new developments while communicating basic principles through a variety of new learning tools—from new in-text worked examples and data analysis problems to the breakthrough eBook, which seamlessly integrates the complete text and its media components.

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  • 1. The Foundations of Biochemistry
    1.1 Cellular Foundations
    1.2 Chemical Foundations
    Box 1–1 Molecular Weight, Molecular Mass, and Their Correct Units
    Box 1–2 Louis Pasteur and Optical Activity: In Vino, Veritas
    1.3 Physical Foundations
    Box 1–3 Entropy: Things Fall Apart
    1.4 Genetic Foundations

    2. Water
    2.1 Weak Interactions in Aqueous Systems
    2.2 Ionization of Water, Weak Acids, and Weak Bases
    2.3 Buffering agains pH Changes in Biological Systems
    Box 2-1 Medicine: On Being One's Own Rabbit (Don't Try This at Home!)
    2.4 Water as a Reactant
    2.5 The Fitness of Aqueous Environment for Living Organisms

    3. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
    3.1 Amino Acids
    Box 3-1 Methods: Absorption of Light by Molecules: The Lambert-Beer Law
    3.2 Peptides and Proteins
    3.3 Working with Proteins
    3.4 The Structure of Proteins: Primary Structure
    Box 3–2 Consensus Sequences and Sequence Logos
    4. The Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins
    4.1 Overview of Protein Structure
    4.2 Protein Secondary Structure
    Box 4–1 Methods: Knowing the Right Hand from the Left
    4.3 Protein Tertiary and Quaternary Structures
    Box 4–2 Permanent Waving Is Biochemical Engineering
    Box 4–3 Why Sailors, Explorers, and College Students Should Eat Their Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
    Box 4–4 The Protein Data Bank
    Box 4–5 Methods: Methods for Determining the Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protein
    4.4 Protein Denaturation and Folding
    Box 4–6 Medicine: Death by Misfolding: The Prion Diseases

    5. Protein Function
    5.1 Reversible Binding of a Protein to a Ligand: Oxygen-Binding Proteins
    Box 5–1 Medicine: Carbon Monoxide: A Stealthy Killer
    5.2 Complementary Interactions between Proteins and Ligands: The Immune System and Immunoglobulins
    5.3 Protein Interactions Modulated by Chemical Energy: Actin, Myosin, and Molecular Motors

    6. Enzymes
    6.1 An Introduction to Enzymes
    6.2 How Enzymes Work
    6.3 Enzyme Kinetics as an Approach to Understanding Mechanism
    Box 6–1 Transformations of the Michaelis-Menten Equation: The Double-Reciprocal Plot
    Box 6–2 Kinetic Tests for Determining Inhibition Mechanisms
    Box 6–3 Curing African Sleeping Sickness with a Biochemical Trojan Horse
    6.4 Examples of Enzymatic Reactions
    6.5 Regulatory Enzymes

    7. Carbohydrates and Glycobiology
    7.1 Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
    Box 7–1 Medicine: Blood Glucose Measurements in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes
    Box 7–2 Sugar Is Sweet, and So Are . . . a Few Other Things
    7.2 Polysaccharides
    7.3 Glycoconjugates: Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids
    7.4 Carbohydrates as Informational Molecules: The Sugar Code
    7.5 Working with Carbohydrates

    8. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
    8.1 Some Basics
    8.2 Nucleic Acid Structure
    8.3 Nucleic Acid Chemistry
    8.4 Other Functions of Nucleotides

    9. DNA-Based Information Technologies
    9.1 Studying Genes and Their Products
    Box 9–1 A Powerful Tool in Forensic Medicine
    9.2 Using DNA-Based Methods to Understand Protein Function
    9.3 Genomics and the Human Story
    Box 9–2 Medicine: Personalized Genomic Medicine
    Box 9–3 Getting to Know the Neanderthals

    10. Lipids
    10.1 Storage Lipids
    10.2 Structural Lipids in Membranes
    Box 10–1 Medicine: Abnormal Accumulations of Membrane Lipids: Some Inherited Human Diseases
    10.3 Lipids as Signals, Cofactors, and Pigments
    10.4 Working with Lipids

    11. Biological Membranes and Transport
    11.1 The Composition and Architecture of Membranes
    11.2 Membrane Dynamics
    11.3 Solute Transport across Membranes
    Box 11–1 Medicine: Defective Glucose and Water Transport in Two Forms of Diabetes
    Box 11–2 Medicine: A Defective Ion Channel in Cystic Fibrosis

    12. Biosignaling
    12.1 General Features of Signal Transduction
    Box 12–1 Methods Scatchard Analysis Quantifies the Receptor-Ligand Interaction
    12.2 Protein–Coupled Receptors and Second Messengers
    Box 12–2 Medicine: G Proteins: Binary Switches in Health and Disease
    Box 12–3 Methods: FRET: Biochemistry Visualized in a Living Cell
    12.3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
    12.4 Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases, cGMP, and Protein Kinase G
    12.5 Multivalent Adaptor Proteins and Membrane Rafts
    12.6 Gated Ion Channels
    12.7 Integrins: Bidirectional Cell Adhesion Receptors
    12.8 Regulation of Transcription by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    12.9 Signaling in Microorganisms and Plants
    12.10 Sensory Transduction in Vision, Olfaction, and Gustation
    Box 12–4 Medicine: Color Blindness: John Dalton’s Experiment from the Grave
    12.11 Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Protein Kinases
    12.12 Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Programmed Cell Death
    Box 12–5 Medicine: Development of Protein Kinase Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment

    13. Bioenergetics and Biochemical Reaction Types
    13.1 Bioenergetics and Thermodynamics
    13.2 Chemical Logic and Common Biochemical Reactions
    13.3 Phosphoryl Group Transfers and ATP
    Box 13–1 Firefly Flashes: Glowing Reports of ATP
    13.4 Biological Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

    14. Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway
    14.1 Glycolysis
    Box 14–1 Medicine: High Rate of Glycolysis in Tumors Suggests Targets for Chemotherapy and Facilitates Diagnosis
    14.2 Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis
    14.3 Fates of Pyruvate under Anaerobic Conditions: Fermentation
    Box 14–2 Athletes, Alligators, and Coelacanths: Glycolysis at Limiting Concentrations of Oxygen
    Box 14–3 Ethanol Fermentations: Brewing Beer and Producing Biofuels
    14.4 Gluconeogenesis
    14.5 Pentose Phosphate Pathway of Glucose Oxidation
    Box 14–4 Medicine: Why Pythagoras Wouldn’t Eat Falafel: Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    15. Principles of Metabolic Regulation
    15.1 Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
    15.2 Analysis of Metabolic Control
    Box 15–1 Methods: Metabolic Control Analysis: Quantitative Aspects
    15.3 Coordinated Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
    Box 15–2 Isozymes: Different Proteins That Catalyze the Same Reaction
    Box 15–3 Medicine: Genetic Mutations That Lead to Rare Forms of Diabetes
    15.4 The Metabolism of Glycogen in Animals
    Box 15–4 Carl and Gerty Cori: Pioneers in Glycogen Metabolism and Disease
    15.5 Coordinated Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis and Breakdown

    16. The Citric Acid Cycle
    16.1 Production of Acetyl-CoA (Activated Acetate)
    16.2 Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle
    Box 16–1 Moonlighting Enzymes: Proteins with More Than One Job
    Box 16–2 Synthases and Synthetases; Ligases and Lyases; Kinases, Phosphatases, and Phosphorylases: Yes, the Names Are Confusing!
    Box 16–3 Citrate: A Symmetric Molecule That Reacts Asymmetrically
    16.3 Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle
    16.4 The Glyoxylate Cycle

    17. Fatty Acid Catabolism
    17.1 Digestion, Mobilization, and Transport of Fats
    17.2 Oxidation of Fatty Acids
    Box 17–1 Fat Bears Carry Out β Oxidation in Their Sleep
    Box 17–2 Coenzyme B12: A Radical Solution to a Perplexing Problem
    17.3 Ketone Bodies

    18. Amino Acid Oxidation and the Production of Urea
    18.1 Metabolic Fates of Amino Groups
    18.2 Nitrogen Excretion and the Urea Cycle
    Box 18–1 Medicine: Assays for Tissue Damage
    18.3 Pathways of Amino Acid Degradation
    Box 18–2 Medicine:Scientific Sleuths Solve a Murder Mystery

    19. Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation
    19.1 Electron-Transfer Reactions in Mitochondria
    Box 19–1 Hot, Stinking Plants and Alternative Respiratory Pathways
    19.2 ATP Synthesis
    Box 19–2 Methods: Atomic Force Microscopy to Visualize Membrane Proteins
    19.3 Regulation of Oxidative Phosphorylation
    19.4 Mitochondria in Thermogenesis, Steroid Synthesis, and Apoptosis
    19.5 Mitochondrial Genes: Their Origin and the Effects of Mutations
    Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy
    19.6 General Features of Photophosphorylation
    19.7 Light Absorption
    19.8 The Central Photochemical Event: Light-Driven Electron Flow
    19.9 ATP Synthesis by Photophosphorylation
    19.10 The Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    20. Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in Plants and Bacteria
    20.1 Photosynthetic Carbohydrate Synthesis
    20.2 Photorespiration and the C4 and CAM Pathways
    Box 20–1 Will Genetic Engineering of Photosynthetic Organisms Increase Their Efficiency?
    20.3 Biosynthesis of Starch and Sucrose
    20.4 Synthesis of Cell Wall Polysaccharides: Plant Cellulose and Bacterial Peptidoglycan
    20.5 Integration of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Plant Cell

    21. Lipid Biosynthesis
    21.1 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids
    Box 21–1 Medicine: Mixed-Function Oxidases, Cytochrome P-450s and Drug Overdoses
    21.2 Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols
    21.3 Biosynthesis of Membrane Phospholipids
    21.4 Cholesterol, Steroids, and Isoprenoids: Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Transport
    Box 21–2 Medicine: ApoE Alleles Predict Incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease
    Box 21–3 Medicine: The Lipid Hypothesis and the Development of Statins

    22. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids, Nucleotides, and Related Molecules
    22.1 Overview of Nitrogen Metabolism
    Box 22–1 Unusual Lifestyles of the Obscure but Abundant
    22.2 Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
    22.3 Molecules Derived from Amino Acids
    Box 22–2 On Kings and Vampires
    22.4 Biosynthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides

    23. Hormonal Regulation and Integration of Mammalian Metabolism
    23.1 Hormones: Diverse Structures for Diverse Functions
    Box 23–1 Medicine: How Is a Hormone Discovered? The Arduous Path to Purified Insulin
    23.2 Tissue-Specific Metabolism: The Division of Labor
    Box 23–2 Creatine and Creatine Kinase: Invaluable Diagnostic Aids and the Muscle Builder’s Friends
    23.3 Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism
    23.4 Obesity and the Regulation of Body Mass
    23.5 Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

    24. Genes and Chromosomes
    24.1 Chromosomal Elements
    24.2 DNA Supercoiling
    Box 24–1 Medicine: Curing Disease by Inhibiting Topoisomerases
    24.3 The Structure of Chromosomes
    Box 24–2 Medicine: Epigenetics, Nucleosome Structure, and Histone Variants

    25. DNA Metabolism
    25.1 DNA Replication
    25.2 DNA Repair
    Box 25–1 Medicine: DNA Repair and Cancer
    25.3 DNA Recombination
    Box 25–2 Medicine:Why Proper Chromosomal Segregation Matters

    26. RNA Metabolism
    26.1 DNA-Dependent Synthesis of RNA
    Box 26–1 Methods: RNA Polymerase Leaves Its Footprint on a Promoter
    26.2 RNA Processing
    26.3 RNA-Dependent Synthesis of RNA and DNA
    Box 26–2 Medicine: Fighting AIDS with Inhibitors of HIV Reverse Transcriptase
    Box 26–3 Methods: The SELEX Method for Generating RNA Polymers with New Functions
    Box 26–4 An Expanding RNA Universe Filled with TUF RNAs

    27. Protein Metabolism
    27.1 The Genetic Code
    Box 27–1 Exceptions That Prove the Rule: Natural Variations in the Genetic Code
    27.2 Protein Synthesis
    Box 27–2 From an RNA World to a Protein World
    Box 27–3 Natural and Unnatural Expansion of the Genetic Code
    Box 27–4 Induced Variation in the Genetic Code: Nonsense Suppression
    27.3 Protein Targeting and Degradation

    28. Regulation of Gene Expression
    28.1 Principles of Gene Regulation
    28.2 Regulation of Gene Expression in Bacteria
    28.3 Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
    Box 28–1 Of Fins, Wings, Beaks, and Things

    Appendix A Common Abbreviations in the Biochemical Research Literature
    Appendix B Abbreviated Solutions to Problems
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